Tuesday, June 7, 2011

HTML-5 -- By Vijay Murgan


HTML5 will be the new standard for HTML, XHTML, and the HTML DOM.
The previous version of HTML came in 1999. The web has changed a lot since then.
HTML5 is still a work in progress. However, most modern browsers have some HTML5 support.

for Rules HTML5 were established

New features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOM, and JavaScri
·Reduce the need for external plugins (like Flash)
·Better error handling
·More markup to replace scripting
·HTML5 should be device independent

New Futures HTML

·The canvas element for drawing
·The video and audio elements for media playback
·Better support for local offline storage
·New content specific elements, like article, footer, header, section
·New form controls, like calendar, date, time, email, url, search
Browser Support:
HTML5 is not yet an official standard, and no browsers have full HTML5 support.
But all major browsers (Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer) continue to add new HTML5 features to their latest versions


Protocols -- By Prakash


Protocol is a special set of rules. An end point in a telecommunication uses protocol when they communicate. This enables computers and software built by different people to be able to communicate in the same language.


  • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) – Web Browser
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – File transfer
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) – Email
  • Internet Protocol (IP) – Packets across the Internet

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) – Web Browser

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level TCP/IP based protocol with the lightness and speed necessary for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (internet).

Following diagram shows where HTTP Protocol fits in communication:

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – File transfer

File Transfer Protocol is a standard network protocol used to copy a file from one host to another over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.

Control and Data Connections

FTP uses the client-server model. The client establishes a control connection. When the user enters a command, the client forms a request using the FTP protocol and sends it to the server. Similarly, the server uses the FTP protocol to send a reply.

FTP uses the control connection only to send and receive control messages. It establishes a separate data connection for each file transfer.

Figure: FTP Connections

FTP Commands

FTP has commands that allow users to connect to a remote computer, provide authentication, find out what remote files are available, and to request file transfers.

Figure: FTP commands

FTP Software

Different types of FTP software available: FileZilla, WinSCP, CuteFTP, Fugu, and SmartFTP.


1. Resume a download that did not finish successfully. Good feature for people with slower Internet connections.

2. Multiple file transfers at a time.

3. File transfers are made by simply dragging and dropping files from one pane to the other.


1. FTP is used to download files. FTP is much faster than standard HTTP downloads (through browser).

2. FTP is a fast and convenient way to transfer files over the Internet. Many webmasters use FTP for uploading their websites files on their hosting accounts.

3. FTP has built-in error checking, and can restart transfers from the point of failure.


1. We need to obtain and pay for disk space on an FTP server. This storage space is typically very limited or much more expensive per MB than our service.

2. No automatic backup: We need to remember to back up every day.

3. FTP connections are unreliable and often times out, so we need to resume the connection and figure out which files were not backed up.

4. Files can be corrupted during FTP transfers without our knowledge.

5. Most FTP software is not encrypted and therefore not secure.

6. Many FTP server data centers have only minimal data security features.

7. Downloads are not protected (not recommended for uploading or downloading large files).

8. When using a web browser for an FTP connection, FTP uploads are sometimes very slow.

9. HTTP doesn't have built-in error checking.

Test data creation script -- By Awadhesh

Below are the requirements for the Script.


1. Source Location

2. Destination Location

3. Start date

4. End date

5. Provider

6. Brand

7. Number of files (Ex: 1000)

8. File Size

9- Story date

10. Log

11- Language (One OR Many)

Below is given a script program for copy the source directory Documents to Destination .




if(!$d)die('The directory ' .$src_dir .' does not exists or PHP have no access to it.');





} else {

die("Destination Directory ".$dest_dir." does not exist");






Maestro performance testing approach. – By Siddu

Following data collected based on bugzila and Jira tickets

Following data collected various types of widgets created in the Production

Based on Data analysis decision will be taken and will be publish in next month blog.

Single Sign ON --By Shwetha

Single Sign ON


What is SSO

Single sign-on is a user/session authentication process that permits a user to enter one name and password in order to access multiple applications.

The process authenticates the user for all the applications they have been given rights to and eliminates further prompts when they switch applications during a particular session.

Definitions of Single Sign-On (SSO) on the Web:

Users sign onto a site only once and are given access to one or more applications in a single domain or across multiple domains. It is a mechanism to verify a user across multiple applications through a single authentication challenge. Web Sphere Portal Server uses Java Authentication and Authorization Services to achieve single sign-on.One log-on provides access to all resources of the network, LAN, or WAN.

It can be illustrated in two different scopes. One is in the client/server relationship and the other is in the e-commerce domain.

1. In Client / Server relationship

“In any client/server relationship, single sign-on is a session/user authentication process that permits a user to enter one name and password in order to access multiple applications.”

2. In E-commerce

“In e-commerce, the single sign-on (sometimes referred to as SSO) is designed to centralize consumer financial information on one server- not only for the consumer's convenience, but also to offer increased security by limiting the number of times the consumer enters credit card numbers or other sensitive information used in billing.”

How does it work?

Advantages of Single-sign on

1 Ease of going from application to application without logging off and on again

2 Protects your identity by use of a Universal Identification Number (UIN) rather than your Number

3 Faster access to your important information

4 Reduced operational cost

5 Reduced time to access data.

6 Improved user experience, no password lists to carry

7 Advanced security to systems

8 Strong authentication

· One Time Password devices

· Smartcards

9 Ease’s burden on developers

10 Centralized management of users, roles

11 Fine grained auditing

12 Effective compliance (SOX, HIPPA)

13 Users select stronger passwords, since the need for multiple passwords and change synchronization is avoided.

14 Inactivity timeout and attempt thresholds are applied uniformly closer to user points of entry.

15 It improves the effectiveness/timeliness of disabling all network/computer accounts for terminated users.

16 It improves an administrator's ability to manage users and user configurations to all associated systems.

17 It reduces administrative overhead in resetting forgotten passwords over multiple platforms and applications.

18 It provides users with the convenience of having to remember only a single set of credentials.

19 This also improves security as users find it easier to remember their credentials and do not have to write them down, allowing for a more efficient user logon process.

20 It reduces the time taken by users to log into multiple applications and platforms.

Disadvantages of Single-Sign on

1. Using only one SSO server can introduce a single point of network failure.

2. Few software solutions accommodate all major operating system environments; a mix of solutions must be tailored to the enterprise's IT architecture and strategic direction.

3. Substantial interface development and maintenance may be necessary, especially in the absence of industry-based standards.

4. The SSO server and other host security must be hardened since Weaknesses can now be exploited across the enterprise.

5. Most SSO-software packages include additional access control features for which purchaser is charged even if they are redundant of any existing controls.

Types of SSO

1 Password Synchronization

2 Legacy SSO (Employee/Enterprise SSO)

3 Web Access Management (WAM)

4 Cross Domain (realm) SSO

5 Federated SSO

Understanding PL/SQL - By Archana



PL/SQL stands for Procedural Language extension of SQL.

PL/SQL is a combination of SQL along with the procedural features of programming languages. It was developed by Oracle Corporation in the early 90’s to enhance the capabilities of SQL.

The PL/SQL Engine:

Oracle uses a PL/SQL engine to processes the PL/SQL statements. A PL/SQL code can be stored in the client system (client-side) or in the database (server-side).

A Simple PL/SQL Block:

Each PL/SQL program consists of SQL and PL/SQL statements which from a PL/SQL block.

A PL/SQL Block consists of three sections:

  • The Declaration section (optional).
  • The Execution section (mandatory).
  • The Exception (or Error) Handling section (optional).

Declaration Section:

The Declaration section of a PL/SQL Block starts with the reserved keyword DECLARE. This section is optional and is used to declare any placeholders like variables, constants, records and cursors, which are used to manipulate data in the execution section. Placeholders may be any of Variables, Constants and Records, which stores data temporarily.

Execution Section:

The Execution section of a PL/SQL Block starts with the reserved keyword BEGIN and ends with END. This is a mandatory section and is the section where the program logic is written to perform any task. The programmatic constructs like loops, conditional statement and SQL statements form the part of execution section.

Exception Section:

The Exception section of a PL/SQL Block starts with the reserved keyword EXCEPTION. This section is optional. Any errors in the program can be handled in this section, so that the PL/SQL Blocks terminates gracefully. If the PL/SQL Block contains exceptions that cannot be handled, the Block terminates abruptly with errors.

Every statement in the above three sections must end with a semicolon ; . PL/SQL blocks can be nested within other PL/SQL blocks.

This is how a sample PL/SQL Block looks.

Variable declaration
Program Execution
Exception handling

Advantages of PL/SQL

These are the advantages of PL/SQL.

  • Block Structures: PL SQL consists of blocks of code, which can be nested within each other. Each block forms a unit of a task or a logical module. PL/SQL Blocks can be stored in the database and reused.

  • Procedural Language Capability: PL SQL consists of procedural language constructs such as conditional statements (if else statements) and loops like (FOR loops).

  • Better Performance: PL SQL engine processes multiple SQL statements simultaneously as a single block, thereby reducing network traffic.

  • Error Handling: PL/SQL handles errors or exceptions effectively during the execution of a PL/SQL program. Once an exception is caught, specific actions can be taken depending upon the type of the exception or it can be displayed to the user with a message.

PL/SQL Placeholders

Placeholders are temporary storage area. Placeholders can be any of Variables, Constants and Records. Oracle defines placeholders to store data temporarily, which are used to manipulate data during the execution of a PL SQL block.

Depending on the kind of data you want to store, you can define placeholders with a name and a datatype. Few of the datatypes used to define placeholders are as given below.
Number (n,m) , Char (n) , Varchar2 (n) , Date , Long , Long raw, Raw, Blob, Clob, Nclob, Bfile

PL/SQL Variables

These are placeholders that store the values that can change through the PL/SQL Block.

The General Syntax to declare a variable is:

variable_name datatype [NOT NULL := value ]; 
  • variable_name is the name of the variable.
  • datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype.
  • NOT NULL is an optional specification on the variable.
  • value or DEFAULT value is also an optional specification, where you can initialize a variable.
  • Each variable declaration is a separate statement and must be terminated by a semicolon.

For example, if you want to store the current salary of an employee, you can use a variable.

salary  number (6);

* “salary” is a variable of datatype number and of length 6.

When a variable is specified as NOT NULL, you must initialize the variable when it is declared.

For example: The below example declares two variables, one of which is a not null.

salary number(4);
dept varchar2(10) NOT NULL := “HR Dept”;

The value of a variable can change in the execution or exception section of the PL/SQL Block. We can assign values to variables in the two ways given below.

1) We can directly assign values to variables.
The General Syntax is:

  variable_name:=  value;

2) We can assign values to variables directly from the database columns by using a SELECT.. INTO statement. The General Syntax is:

SELECT column_name
INTO variable_name 
FROM table_name 
[WHERE condition]; 

Example: The below program will get the salary of an employee with id '1116' and display it on the screen.

 var_salary number(6); 
 var_emp_id number(6) = 1116; 
 SELECT salary 
 INTO var_salary 
 FROM employee 
 WHERE emp_id = var_emp_id; 
 dbms_output.put_line('The employee ' 
                    || var_emp_id || ' has  salary  ' || var_salary); 

NOTE: The backward slash '/' in the above program indicates to execute the above PL/SQL Block.

Scope of Variables

PL/SQL allows the nesting of Blocks within Blocks i.e, the Execution section of an outer block can contain inner blocks. Therefore, a variable which is accessible to an outer Block is also accessible to all nested inner Blocks. The variables declared in the inner blocks are not accessible to outer blocks. Based on their declaration we can classify variables into two types.

  • Local variables - These are declared in a inner block and cannot be referenced by outside Blocks.
  • Global variables - These are declared in a outer block and can be referenced by its itself and by its inner blocks.

For Example: In the below example we are creating two variables in the outer block and assigning their product to the third variable created in the inner block. The variable 'var_mult' is declared in the inner block, so cannot be accessed in the outer block i.e. it cannot be accessed after line 11. The variables 'var_num1' and 'var_num2' can be accessed anywhere in the block.

2>  var_num1 number; 
3>  var_num2 number; 
5>  var_num1 := 100; 
6>  var_num2 := 200; 
8>   var_mult number; 
9>   BEGIN 
10>    var_mult := var_num1 * var_num2; 
11>   END; 
12> END; 
13> /